HOURS

Mon-Wed 9am-6pm
Thurs-Fri 9am-9pm
Sat 9am-5pm
Sun 10am-5pm
   

Perennials

 PestsDiseasesCultural Disorders

 

 

 

 

 

 

INSECT PESTS ON PERENNIALS
Select the pest from the images below for more information:

AntsAphidsColumbine LeafminersColumbine Sawflys

 

 

 

 

 

Daylily MidgesDelphinium WormsFlea BettlesLeafhoppers

 

 

 

 

 

Scarlet Lily BeetlesSlugsSpider MitesSpittle Bugs

 

 

 

 

 

Stink BugsThrips

 

 

 

 

 


Ants

AntsAntsAnts are mostly beneficial, feeding on other insects and decomposing plant material. They do not feed directly on plants, but rather on plant debris, rotting wood. However, in great numbers, ants can disrupt turf with large hills.

Symptoms:  Will see ants scurrying along, may see hills in lawn if population is high.

Cultural Control:
• Try to locate the hill; if there’s not a clear sign of a hill, try to watch ant activity. You will see them coming and going from a general direction. Poke holes deep into turf in that area, and drench with an extensive amount of water.
• Powder areas of activity heavily with diatomaceous earth.

Chemical Control:
• Drench hills/tunnel areas with Malathion.
• Poke holes and inject with Doktor Doom Residual or Doktor Doom.


Aphids
AphidsAphids

Plants affected:  Numerous indoor and outdoor plants

Symptoms:  Severe infestations will cause curling/twisting of foliage, flowers to wilt and drop.

Life Cycle:  Eggs hatch on host plants in spring, these nymphs give birth to ‘daughters’, within days the daughters give birth - up to 30 generations per summer

Cultural Control:
• Ladybird beetles/larvae, lacewings are natural predators
• Strong jet of water to knock aphids off plants

Chemical Control:
Doktor Doom House and Garden, End All, Ambush


Columbine LeafminersColumbine LeafminersColumbine Leafminers

Plants affected:  Various species of columbine

Symptoms: Leaves have winding tunnels through them

Life Cycle:  Eggs are laid in early spring, larvae hatch and feed in between leaf layers, causing mines

Cultural Control: Clip affected leaves

Chemical Control:  Ineffective


Columbine Sawfly

columbine sawfly.jpgColumbine SawflyPlants affected: Various species of columbine

Symptoms:
Leaves are skeletonized
• Can cause complete defoliation

Life Cycle:
Eggs are laid on underside of leaves in April / Early May
• Hatch and feed in the outer edge leaves leaving only the veins
• Pupate and emerge into a wasp like fly

Cultural Control:
• Hand pick
• Diatomaceous earth

Chemical Control:  Insecticidal soap, Ambush, Doktor Doom House and Garden


Daylily Midge

Daylily MidgeDaylily MidgePlants affected:  Daylily

Symptoms:  Buds are deformed, streaked with purple

Life Cycle:
• Adults overwinter in soil, emerge in spring
• Adults lay eggs in developing buds. Larvae feed on buds, distorting them and leaving purple streaking. Unopened buds eventually drop to the ground and larvae emerge, overwinter in soil.

Cultural Control: Remove affected buds and discard in garbage or burn.

Chemical Control:  None available


Delphinium Worms

Delphinium WormDelphinium WormDelphinium WormPlants affected:  Delphinium

Symptoms:  Rolled, twisted leaves with black markings

Life Cycle:
Young caterpillars overwinter in hollow stems of old plants, emerge in spring to feed on new growth. Early summer caterpillars pupate in cocoons on undersides of leaves then adults emerge a few weeks later.
• Females lay eggs in July and young caterpillars feed amongst buds before hibernating.

Cultural Control:
In fall, cut delphinium stems to soil level, do not leave hollow stems for caterpillars to overwinter in
Remove affected leaves

Chemical Control:  Apply Diatomaceous Earth or Doctor Doom House and Garden in EARLY spring, when plants are about 6-8” tall


Flea Beetles

Flea BeetlesFlea BeetlesPlants affected:  Numerous perennials and annuals

Symptoms:  Numerous holes in foliage, about the size of a pinhead

Life Cycle:  Overwinter in soil beneath leaf debris, emerge in spring. Adults feed on foliage, mate and lay eggs

Cultural Control:  Clean up leaf debris and weeds in autumn

Chemical Control:  Spray adult beetles in spring before they lay eggs; Ambush, Dr. Doom House and Garden


Leafhoppers

LeafhoppersLeafhoppersPlants affected:  Virginia Creeper, Grape Vines most common, can affect other perennials

Symptoms:  Hazy, speckled leaves from feeding, clouds of insects flit about when disturbed

Life Cycle:
Some species lay eggs in fall to overwinter on woody stems and vines, eggs hatch in spring and feed on plants
Others migrate for the winter, and return as adults in the spring to lay eggs in host plants

Cultural Control:
Consistent misting of foliage with strong jets of water can knock down a certain amount of the pests
• Late fall or early spring applications of horticultural oil to smother adults

Chemical Control:  Apply diatomaceous earth or doctor doom house and garden in EARLY spring, when plants are about 6-8” tall. Once grape fruit is present, diatomaceous earth or ambush.


Scarlet Lily Beetles

Red Lily BeetlePlants affected:  Lilies

Symptoms:  Foliage and flowers chewed on, bright orange eggs on undersides of leaves.

Life Cycle:  Overwinter as pupae in the soil, adults emerge in spring. Adults lay eggs on undersides of leaves, eggs hatch in about 1 week. Larvae feed on both foliage and flowers May to September.

Cultural Control:
When lilies just emerging from soil, check for eggs. Squish eggs on undersides of leaves
• Remove insects, drop into bucket of soapy water.

Non-chemical Control:  Diatomaceous earth; dust soil and plants early when lilies emerging

Chemical Control:  Doktor Doom House and Garden Residual spray – apply early in spring as lilies are emerging


Slugs

SlugsSlug TrailPlants affected:  Perennials, annuals

Symptoms:  Ragged holes chewed in leaves, slime trails on leaves

Life Cycle:
Overwinter as eggs in soil
• Hermaphrodite; every slug can lay eggs. Eggs laid in batches of 10-50 in moist soil.

Cultural Control:
Till soil to disturb eggs, expose eggs to natural predators
Spread diatomaceous earth or other gritty substances under plant leaves
Spread iron based slug pellets (Sluggo or Safer’s) at base of plants, under foliage
Beer traps; dishes filled with beer, set at soil level, may attract and drown slugs

 Chemical Control:  Metaldehyde based pellets


Spider Mites

Spider MitesSpider MitesPlants affected:  Numerous indoor and outdoor plants.

Symptoms:
Stippling—tiny dots in foliage.
Yellowing of foliage—’haze’ on foliage.

Life Cycle:
Can overwinter in various stages under debris or bark on host plants, in greenhouses.
Become active in spring as foliage emerges.

Cultural Control:
• Lacewings are natural predators
• Keep plants misted (they prefer dry conditions)
• Fall debris cleanup.

Chemical Control:  End All, Doktor Doom House and Garden, Ambush.


Spittle Bugs

Spittle BugsSpittle BugsPlants affected:  Numerous annuals and perennials

Symptoms:  Spit’ on plant—bug is hidden underneath the foam

Life Cycle:
Eggs overwinter on plant material, hatch in spring, nymphs feed on plants
Adults lay eggs in late summer

Cultural Control:  Spray plants with strong jet of water

Chemical Control:  Not necessary


 Stink Bugs

Stink BugsPlants Affected:  Numerous; trees, shrubs, perennials, annuals

Description:
Various forms/colours will be seen—will generally have a large triangular plate on their back
Omit foul smelling substance when disturbed

Life Cycle:  Adults overwinter in plant debris/in soil. Emerge May-June, eggs are laid in June-July, from egg to adult takes about 25 days

Control:
Though found in large #’s, rarely cause damage to the extent that warrants spraying with insecticide
Actually a predator of Colorado potato beetles. Each nymph can consume over 250 eggs


Thrips

ThripsThripsPlants affected:  Numerous indoor and outdoor plants

Symptoms:  White blotches or streaks on foliage/blooms – damage is the size/shape of a ‘hyphen’

Cultural Control:  Remove affected blooms and leaves

Chemical Control:  End All, Doktor Doom House and Garden


DISEASES ON PERENNIALS
Select the disease from the images below for more information:

Botrytis BlightBotrytis Blight on LilyClematis WiltDowny Mildew

 

 

 

 

Powdery MildewRed Leaf Rhubarb DiseaseRust

 
 

 

 

 


 Black Spot

Black SpotBlack SpotPlants Affected: Numerous

Symptoms: Small black spots appear on leaves and/or flowers.  Damage is cosmetic.

Life Cycle:
• The fungus overwinters on infected leaf debris from the previous season
• Spores travel with wind and colonize on wet foliage

Controls - Cultural or Non-Chemical:
• Affected leaves or flowers can be pruned out and discarded.  DO NOT COMPOST
• Keep plants well-spaced to improve air circulation
• Water in the morning and avoid wetting the foliage
• Keep affected plants well-watered and fertilized
• Cut back all dead foliage to ground level in fall to prevent reinfection next year
• Natria Bio-fungicide can be applied as a preventative in 5 day intervals, starting in June

Controls - Chemical:
• Safer’s Defender can be sprayed in 7 day intervals as a preventative on plants that have been previously infected
• Garden Sulphur can be dusted onto affected plants to suppress spores


Botrytis Blight

BlightPlants Affected:  Peony, Strawberry, numerous others

Symptoms:
• Plants wilt when fungus enters stems at soil level; black rotten patches and/or gray mold is sometimes seen
• Flower buds may abort, turning brown before opening
• Damage is cosmetic and does not usually cause death

Life Cycle:
• Fungus overwinters on infected plant debris from the previous season, or in the soil
• Spores can travel on the wind or in splashing water, and colonize on decaying plant matter and wet flowers or foliage

Controls- Cultural or Non-Chemical:
• Ensure watering is done first thing in the morning
• Keep plants well-spaced to promote proper air flow
• Plant in well-drained soil
• Prune out and discard any badly affected portions to prevent further spread
• If the problem persists for several years in a row, relocate plants to a different area
• Strawberries should be grown with a layer of mulch underneath and surrounding plants so fruit does not come into contact with the soil
• Cut back all dead foliage to ground level in fall to prevent reinfection next year

Controls - Chemical: No chemicals available at this time


Botrytis Blight on Lily

Blight on LilacPlants Affected: Lilies, especially martagons

Symptoms:
• Leaves develop numerous brownish patches; have a “scorched” appearance
• Flower buds may abort, turning brown and following off before opening
• Damage is cosmetic

Life Cycle:
• Fungus overwinters on infected plant debris from the previous season, or in the soil
• Spores can travel on the wind or in splashing water, and colonize on decaying plant matter and wet flowers or foliage

Controls – Cultural or Non-chemical:
• Ensure watering is done first thing in the morning
• Avoid wetting the foliage
• Plant bulbs in well-drained soil
• Keep plants healthy with adequate watering and fertilizing
• If problem persists for several years in a row, relocate bulbs to a different area and do not plant lilies in the same area again for several years
• If only present on a few leaves, remove affected leaves. Do not cut stems down, as this will stress out the plants further and lead to poor performance and increased susceptibility to further infection
• Cut back all dead stems to ground level in fall to prevent reinfection next year

Controls – Chemical
• Copper spray can be applied as a preventative on plants that have been infected in previous years. Start applying in 7 day intervals once leaves begin to unfurl in spring
• Copper spray can also be applied to plants already infected (in 5 day intervals) to suppress spread of spores


Clematis Wilt

Clematis WiltPlants Affected: Clematis

Symptoms:  Sections or the whole plant will suddenly wilt and collapse, often turns black in a very short amount of time

Life Cycle:Fungus enters the plant through broken or damaged stems, typically near the ground, usually via splashing water
• Spores will be produced from infected plant tissue

Controls - Cultural or Non-Chemical:
• Cut down affected stems to ground level
• Plant at proper depth for hybrid types, to give vines extra support; plant so top of rootball is 4"" deeper than soil surface
• Plant in well drained soil fortified with lots of organic material
• Keep plants properly staked etc to avoid damage to the stems; be careful when cultivating around plants

Controls - Chemical: No chemical controls are available


Downy Mildew

Downy MildewPlants Affected: Numerous, especially Arctic and Moss Phlox, Rock Cress, Whitlow Grass, other groundcover/alpine type perennials

Symptoms:
• Gray moldy, fuzzy spots appear on foliage, which often also turns yellow and may become mushy/rotten in severe cases
• Older varieties are more susceptible
• Not as common as powdery mildew

Life Cycle:
• Fungus overwinters on infected leaf debris from the previous season
• Spores travel on wind and infect wet foliage
• Weeds are frequently responsible for harbouring and spreading the disease

Controls – Cultural or Non-chemical:
• Choose disease-resistant varieties
• Clip off affected portions
• Keep plants well-spaced to improve air circulation
• Water in the morning only
• Divide plants every 3-4 years to maintain vigour and disease resistance
• Plant in full sun
• Keep beds well-weeded

Controls – Chemical:
• Safer’s Defender can be applied as a preventative in 7 day intervals, beginning in June
• Garden Sulphur can be dusted on affected plants to suppress spores


Powdery Mildew

Plants Affected: Numerous, especially Beebalm, Columbine, Delphinium, Goldenrod, Jacob’s Ladder, Lungwort, Meadowsweet, Speedwell, Stonecrop, Summer Phlox, and others

Powdery MildewPowdery MildewSymptoms:
• White powdery spots, yellowing leaves
• Plants cannot manufacture as much food as they need; severe infestations can kill or severely stunt plants

Life Cycle:
• Fungus overwinters on infected leaf debris from the previous season
• Spores travel on wind and infect wet foliage
• Most prolific during summer weather where days are hot and dry and nights are cool and humid
• Weeds are frequently responsible for harbouring and spreading the disease

Controls - Cultural or Non-Chemical:
• Keep plants well-spaced to improve air circulation
• Clip off infected sections
• Perennials that are badly infected can even be cut back to ground level and allowed to regrow
•Keep well-watered and fertilized; liquid kelp and high potassium fertilizers aid in recovery
• Water in the morning only and avoid wetting the foliage
• Cut back all dead foliage to ground level in fall to prevent reinfection next year
• Keep beds well weeded
• Natria Bio-fungicide can be applied as a preventative in 5 day intervals, beginning in June

Controls – Chemical:
• Safer’s Defender can be applied as a preventative in 7 day intervals, beginning in June
• Garden Sulphur can be dusted onto affected plants to suppress spores


Red Leaf Rhubarb Disease

Red Leaf Rhubarb DiseasePlants affected: Rhubarb

Symptoms:
• Redleaf first appears as small, greenish-yellow areas on the upper surface of the leaves. These change to circular or some-what angular-shaped spots having white centres with wide, reddish margins
• In severe cases, the red colour becomes very prominent so that the plant soon loses vigour and leaves droop to the ground. Eventually, the crown will die, usually into the second or third season after infection occurs

Life Cycle: Disease is passed by insect pests feeding on infected plants and transferring the disease to other plants

Cultural Control:
• Remove all infected leaves during the growing season and destroy by burning or burial
• If symptoms continue to appear, dig up the crown and burn or bury all infected tissue

Controls – Chemical: None available


Rust

RustRustPlants affected: Numerous, in particular Hollyhock, Speedwell, Stonecrop

Symptoms:
• Orange to red spots appear on foliage and sometimes flowers or fruit. Oftentimes, these turn brown or black over time and may release powdery orange spores. Frequently the spots have a “blistery” appearance
• Damage is usually cosmetic

Life Cycle:
• A complex fungus whose life cycle usually involves two or more hosts
• Usually overwinters on infected plant debris from the previous season or on an alternate host
• Alternate hosts are frequently weeds, from which spores are produced which travel on the wind to garden plants, infecting wet foliage
• Spores produced on infected garden plants then travel back to the alternate host to re-infect

Controls – Cultural or Non-chemical:
• Keep beds well-weeded
• Keep plants well-watered and fertilized
• Water in the morning only; avoid wetting foliage
• For minor infections, remove affected plant parts
• Natria Bio-fungicide can be applied as a preventative in 5 day intervals, starting in June

Controls – Chemical:  Copper spray can be applied as a preventative in 7 day intervals, starting in June; can also be applied in 5 day intervals on infected plants to suppress spores


CULTURAL DISORDERS
Disorders are plant abnormalities that are caused by environmental factors such as nutrient availability or temperature (not pests or diseases). Typically, disorders may make your plant look different than expected but unless severe, are not usually overly harmful.
Select the disorder from the images below for more information:

 

ChlorosisHerbicide DamageOverwateringUnderwatering

 

 

 

 

 


Chlorosis
Chlorosis

Symptoms:
• leaves are yellow but veins remain green, may be some browning on the margins of leaves
• will be evident first on new growth, then work back to older leaves on a branch

Control:
• ensure loose, well-drained soil, avoid overwatering
• high soil alkalinity can also be a cause, plants can be fertilized with iron chelate for recovery

 


Underwatering

Herbicide Damage

Symptoms:
• curling or cupping leaves
• discoloration between veins
• twisted, elongated stems

Control:
• use all herbicides according to label, note that herbicide can drift for several miles, it’s very difficult to ascertain where chemical drifts from
• keep damaged plants well-watered, most plants will recover


Overwatering

OverwateringSymptoms:
• wilting, yellowing leaves
• leaves will yellow from outside in
• Note: wilting is a symptom of BOTH over and underwatering, if plants are wilting don’t assume they require moisture until soil is checked by hand

Controls:
• plants in lower lying areas will suffer in times of heavy rains; plant appropriate species in these areas
• for new and established plants, water only as required; check soil prior to watering


UnderwateringUnderwatering

Symptoms:
• wilting, crispy or browned leaf edges

Controls:
• water, especially for new transplants should be monitored daily during periods of extreme heat
• for new transplants, stick your hand into the soil to determine if moisture is required